What is Wellness?

Wellness kya hai?? Wellness ka concept bahut hi naya hai aur ye logo ke liye ek rehasyamay word hai. Logo zadatr health aur wellness ko ek hi se jodte hai aur wellness ko health se jod dete hai jabki ye dono paribhashaye alag hai.

Svasth rehne ka arth hai physically aur mentally dono tarike se svasth rehna.

Wellness ke Pehlu:-

1-Physical:- Physically svasth rehne ke liye proper exercise karna zaruri hai.

2-Emotional:- hamare emotions (bhavnayen) wellness ka ek dusra part hai. Agar koi vyakti bahut bhavatmak prabhab ka hai aur chhoti chhoti si baat par bhavuk ho jata hai to bhi uski wellness par effect padta hai kyoki uski mental health thik nahi hogi. Es type ke log kabhi kabhi kafi tnav grast aur gussail bhi ho jate hai.

3-Social:- Samajik (social) wellness ka arth hai dusre logo ke prati riste ki ahmiyat ko samjhna. sabse pyar se pesh aana aur apne family members ko time dena aur jaisa vaibhavar hum dusre se karte hai usi ki ummed karna.

4-Environmental- Agar aap ek nature lover hai. Ye wellness ka sabse adhik ignore kiya jane wala part hai agar aap nature ko lekar bahut hi chintit hai aur duniya k liye kuch karna chahte hai aur uspe aapka bas nahi chalta to ye sab cheeze bhi aapki mental health ko effect karti hai.

5-Intellectual (baudhik):- Baudhik balance bhi bahut zaruri hai. kya aap naye vicharo aur avadhaarnao (accreditation) ke khule hue ho? kya aap apne se alag vichar rakhne wale logo ko appreciate karte hai? aur unhe accept kate hai? kya aap kisi ki samsya ke samadhan me apni samsya samjh kar suljhane me lag jate hai.

6- Financial:- Agar aap vavysaik taur par majboot nahi hai tab bhi aapki health and wellness affect karti hai. Apni roz ki zarorto ke liye paryapt dhan nahi kama pate ho tab bhi ghar me aur aapki personal life me ek tanav ka mauhol rehta hai.

Wellness is most important of our life because health is totally depend on it. Iske liye hame roz yoga karna chaiye meditation karna chaiye isse dimag shant hota hai. walk and healthy foods ka istemal bhadana chaiye.

How to take care of your skin in extreme hot weather?

Summer is here, and with it comes the heat and humidity that can wreak havoc on your skin. Whether you’re spending your days outside, or just trying to stay cool indoors, it’s important to take care of your skin in hot weather. Here are some tips to keep your skin looking and feeling great:

1-Use a lightweight moisturizer

During the summer months, your skin can become oily and sweaty, which can lead to breakouts and clogged pores. To keep your skin hydrated without adding extra oil, use a lightweight moisturizer that is oil-free and non-comedogenic. This will help to keep your skin looking and feeling healthy, without clogging your pores.

2-Protect your skin from the sun

The sun’s harmful UV rays can cause damage to your skin, including sunburn, premature aging, and even skin cancer. To protect your skin from the sun, wear a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and reapply every two hours. You should also wear protective clothing, such as a hat and sunglasses, and avoid spending too much time outside during peak sun hours.

3-Exfoliate gently

Exfoliating can help to remove dead skin cells and unclog pores, but it’s important to be gentle, especially in hot weather. Use a gentle exfoliator with natural ingredients, such as sugar or oatmeal, and use it no more than once or twice a week. This will help to keep your skin looking bright and fresh, without damaging the delicate skin barrier.

4-Drink plenty of water

Staying hydrated is important for your overall health, but it’s especially important for your skin during hot weather. When you’re dehydrated, your skin can become dry and flaky, which can lead to wrinkles and other signs of aging. Make sure to drink plenty of water throughout the day, and consider adding some hydrating foods to your diet, such as watermelon or cucumber.

5-Use a facial mist

A facial mist can help to refresh and hydrate your skin during hot weather, without adding extra oil. Look for a mist with natural ingredients, such as aloe vera or green tea, and spritz it onto your skin throughout the day. This will help to keep your skin feeling cool and refreshed, even in the hottest weather.

6-Take cool showers

Hot showers can strip your skin of its natural oils and leave it feeling dry and irritated. To prevent this, take cool showers or baths, and avoid using harsh soaps or cleansers that can be drying. You can also add some oatmeal or baking soda to your bath water to soothe your skin and relieve itching.

Conclusion taking care of your skin in hot weather doesn’t have to be difficult. By using a lightweight moisturizer, protecting your skin from the sun, exfoliating gently, drinking plenty of water, using a facial mist, and taking cool showers, you can keep your skin looking and feeling great all summer long. Just remember to be gentle, and to listen to your skin’s needs, and you’ll be able to enjoy the season without worrying about your skin.

Why BCG vaccine is important? Age of BCG Vaccine

BCG vaccine is given to prevent TB. BCG stands for Bacilli Calmette Guerin. TB is caused by Mycobacteria, it damages them by going into the lungs through the air and also affects other parts of the body like bones, brain, kidneys can also be affected by it.

Why is it important to get the BCG vaccine?

BCG vaccine to prevent TB and prevent this disease from becoming more complicated in the body.

During the Corona period, it has been seen that in countries where BCG vaccine has been regularly administered, the Covid virus caused less damage to the lungs and the death ratio in such countries was also found to be very less.

The number of people who died from corona in those countries where BCG vaccine is not administered was very high.

When is the BCG vaccine administered? 

The schedule followed in India according to Universal Immunization Program, this vaccine is given as soon as the child is born.

As soon as the child is born and if he is completely healthy, then he should be vaccinated with BCG.

How long can it be given if the BCG vaccine is missed at birth?

If a child missed the BCG vaccine at the time of birth for some reason, then this vaccine can be given till the age of 5 years.

There are some special rules for this

If your child is less than one year old, then your child can be vaccinated directly with BCG, which means that there is no need to do any kind of test for this, just you can get this vaccine after consulting your doctor.

If your child is more than a year old, then you will have to get a TB test done.

This test is called Mantoux or PPD.

A circle is made at the place where this solution is put in the skin, so that remember where the solution was inserted.

It is seen after three days of insertion into the skin or after 72 hours, if the color of the skin changes such as if it becomes blue, then it is called test positive, it means that the TB bacteria in the child’s body.

If there is no change in the color of the skin, then this test is called negative.

You can get your child vaccinated against BCG when the test is negative, but it is called indirect BCG because it is administered after the Mantoux test.

Side Effects After Getting BCG Vaccine

BCG vaccine is administrated to the arm of the child and it is given into the skin.

There is no such special side effect after getting the vaccine.

After a couple of months, it is natural shown pimple to come out of the place where the vaccine was given and there is nothing to worry about it, it gets cured on its own in a few days.

If there is a lump or pus coming out too much at that place, then definitely consult your doctor.

BCG Vaccine Dosage

This 0.05ml Intradermal is administrated a baby up to one month old

If the child is above one month then dose should be 0.1ml Intradermal

BCG vaccine is kept in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2 to 8 degrees.

Government Vs Private Vaccination Chart

Government Vs Private Vaccination Chart

There is a lot of difference in the vaccination chart of government and private hospitals, there are many such vaccines which are not administered in government hospitals, which are very important for children because the immunity of children is very less according to the elders and the vaccine is one such a way which we can save children from many diseases.

What is the difference between private and government vaccination charts? vaccination in private hospitals

The vaccination schedule that is followed in private hospitals comes under the Indian Academy of Pediatrics.

Indian Academy of Pediatric (private) Vaccination chart

 Age                     Vaccine           Doses
Birth BGG 0.1 ml(0.05 ml)
OPV0 2 Drops
HepB1 0.5 ml
6 Weeks DTWP1/DTap1, Hib1&HepB2+IPV1 0.5 ml
Rotavirus 1 5 Drops
PCV1 0.5 ml
10 Weeks DTWP2/DTap2, Hib2+HepB3+IPV2 0.5 ml
Rotavirus 2 5 Drops
PCV2 0.5 ml
14 Weeks DTWP3/DTap3, Hib3+HepB4+IPV3 0.5 ml
Rotavirus 3 5 Drops
PCV3 0.5 ml
6 Month Typhoid Conjugate(TCV) 0.5 ml
Influenza Vaccine 1 + OPV1 0.5 ml
7 Month Influenza Vaccine 2 0.5 ml
9 Month MMR1 0.5 ml
OPV2 2 Drops
Meningococcal 1 0.5 ml
12 Month  HepatitisA1 0.5 ml
Meningococcal 2 0.5 ml
Japanese Encephalitis 0.5 ml
15 Month MMR2 0.5 ml
Varicella 1 0.5 ml
18 Month DRWP B1/DTapB1 IPVB1 HibB1 0.5 ml
  Hepatitis A2 0.5 ml
2 Years Typhoid Booster 0.5 ml
4-6 Years DTWB2/DTapB2 0.5 ml
Varicella2 0.5 ml
10 Years Tdap/Td 0.5 ml
9-14 Years HPV 1 (Only for Girls) 0.5 ml 
HPV 2 (After 6 Month) 0.5 ml

Vaccination schedule in government hospital 

The vaccination schedule that is followed in government hospitals started vaccination in India from 1978 and in 1985 the name of this campaign was named Universal Immunization Program (UIP), under this, the diseases which can be prevented through vaccines, for those 12 diseases. babies are vaccinated

 Age                     Vaccine           Doses
Birth BGG 0.1 ml(0.05 ml)
OPV0 2 Drops
HepB1 0.5 ml
6 Weeks DTWP1/ Hib1&HepB2 0.5 ml
Rotavirus 1 5 Drops
IPV1 if Available 0.5ml
PCV1 0.5 ml
10 Weeks DTWP2/ Hib2&HepB3 0.5 ml
Rotavirus 2 5 Drops
IPV2 if Available  
PCV2 0.5ml
14 Weeks DTWP3/ Hib3&HepB4 0.5 ml
Rotavirus 3 5 Drops
IPV3 if Available 0.5 ml
6 Month OPV1 2 drops
9 Month MR1  0.5 ml
Vitamin A 1st dose 1ml oral (1lakh IU)
PCV3 (Not given in all Government hospitals) 0.5 ml
12 Month Japanese Encephalitis 0.5 ml
16-24 Month DPT Booster 1st 0.5ml
MR2  0.5mll
OPV2 2 drops
5-6 Year DPT Booster 2nd 0.5ml
10 year TT ( Tetanus Toxoid) 0.5ml

What is cerebral palsy and its treatment?

Cerebral Palsy (CP) which affects any part of the body and muscles. Occurs due to birth asphyxia and head injury before birth. Cerebral means brain disorder and palsy means muscle weakness.

How to recognize that the child suffer with Cerebral Palsy?

In this type of child, the symptoms start showing very little, in general, two types of symptoms are more visible in children suffering from cerebral palsy. Such as weakness in muscles, loosening of hands and legs or not having proper body structure.

In some children, the symptoms reach a serious stage if its treatment is not started at the right time. Let me tell you, children suffering from Cerebral Palsy are unable to move their limbs and sit. Some children may even be disabled. Apart from this, the afflicted children also have trouble swallowing mud and difficulty in speaking.

What is the cause of Cerebral Palsy?

1- Birth Asphyxia is a very common reason in India, due to which children become victims of cerebral palsy. If oxygen does not reach immediately after, they get damaged and due to which the child can suffer from cerebral palsy for life.

2- Meningitis is also a very main reason, due to which a child can become a victim of cerebral palsy. Meninges are three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. There is a fluid around the meninges, which instead of becoming infected. Meningitis can happen to children of any age.

3- Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection, it also affects the brain and spinal cord like meningitis and it is caused by the bite of a mosquito infected with flavivirus because the virus also attacks the brain, then it causes cerebral palsy. there are many chances

4- If the child does not cry at the time of birth, it can also cause a cerebral palsy.

5- Children who drink dirty water in the stomach, which we also call Meconium, because of this, many times the child does not cry at birth and their brain does not get oxygen and the brain tissue gets damaged due to which A child can also be a victim of cerebral palsy from

6- If there is swelling in the brain of the child at the time of birth, then it can also cause a Cerebral Palsy.

7- If there is any injury on the head of the child at the time of birth.

Any kind of infection during pregnancy.

9- Brain is not developing properly

10- During pregnancy such as rubella, syphilis, thyroid, chickenpox increases the risk of Cerebral Palsy

11- Some babies born prematurely may be at risk of cerebral palsy.

Symptoms of Cerebral Palsy

The main symptom of cerebral palsy is that if your baby has a milestone delay like if your baby should not hold the head at 3 months and baby should not sit at 6 months if your baby is not able to do this then it is a sign of cerebral palsy. indicates that you should immediately consult your doctor

Difficulty swallowing anything.

Having trouble speaking

More or less strain in the muscles.

To walk like a bent gait.

Unable to do normal work

Difficulty walking or sitting.

Inability to control urination.

hearing impairment.

Not able to see properly

Test for Cerebral Palsy

If the child does not know how to sit at the right time, and his muscles have become loose or too tight, then the doctor of such children can usually detect cerebral palsy by conducting a clinical examination.

For this, tests are done so that the condition of the brain can be ascertained, how much the brain has developed.
C T Scan
Accordingly, further treatment is carried out.

Treatment of cerebral palsy

There is no specific treatment for Cerebral Palsy (CP), but there are some treatments for this type of child, by which the child can be made a little able to sit up.
Many types of treatment are needed in the patients of Cerebral Palsy, such children also need a pediatrician who checks them from time to time and accordingly some medicines can be given to develop their brain.
In such a situation, along with medicines, its physical activity is also very important, for this Occupational therapy is very effective, through Occupational therapy, children are made to do their daily activities.

The role of Speech Therapy is also very high because a child suffering from Cerebral Palsy is unable to speak and he also has trouble in coordination.

Physical therapy is used to improve the child’s muscle activity, if the child’s muscles remain very tight, then physical therapy is brought to their right tone.

If children have more problems due to the wrong structure of muscles and bones, then the doctor will try to bring the bones in the right position

How to understand Autism Spectrum disorder in Children?

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability, due to this disorder, children and their parents have to face many problems. No specific reason could be found.

How to Know if Your Child Has Autism Disorder?

If your child has Autism, then he will not take much interest in increasing social, emotional, and social interaction with others children of his age or it should be said in simple language that he will be unable to understand all these things. Children live in their world, neither they listen to anyone nor are they able to explain their point to anyone.

If you ask a child with Autism to point at an object, then he will be unable to do it or it may also happen that he does not listen to you, for example, if the child of Autism, if any flying object like If an airplane or a bird is shown sitting, then he may not even see it and if you say more then he will start looking angry, that is only because he is not able to understand your point and because of not understanding, only anger is with him. There is no other way than to look and be irritated.

If your child has turned 2 years old and still he is unable to speak and does not know how to speak, then it can be a sign of autism.

Autism child’s behavior is disturbed

Children with autism prefer to be alone

Not talking eye to eye means poor eye contact

Having trouble socializing with others

Running away from unknown people

Such children take interest in other people, but they do not realize how to talk to them or play with them.

Not understanding the feelings of others

Children of autism do not like to be held or hugged at all snoring

stuttering or not speaking at all

If such children get angry then many times they start breaking things. repeating every word of the other person during a conversation keep doing something continuously, such as clapping or running

Types of Autism

Autistic Disorder: This is the most common type of autism. People who are affected by this disorder of autism have difficulties in social behavior and in interacting with other people. In addition, habits such as being interested in unusual things, behaving unusually, bottlenecks, stuttering, or talking infrequently can also be symptoms of autistic disorder. At the same time, in some cases a decrease in intellectual ability is also seen.

2. Asperger Syndrome: This syndrome is considered to be the mildest form of autistic disorder. Individuals suffering from this syndrome may sometimes seem strange with their behavior, but they can be very interested in certain subjects. However, these people do not have any problems related to mental or social behavior.

3. Pervasive Autism Disorder: It is generally not considered a type of autism. It is only in certain situations that people are considered to be suffering from this disorder.
due to autism

As of now, no firm cause has been found for Autism Spectrum Disorder, it has been said in different studies that this disorder is caused due to some genetic and environmental reasons. Which hinders the development of the brain of the unborn child. A mutation in a gene that controls brain development

Defects in the genes involved in the communication between cells and the brain

Viral infection during pregnancy or exposure to airborne pollution particles

These children are most at risk of autism:

Children of parents who already have a child with autism

Premature babies

work weight at birth

having a child at an older age

Genetic/chromosomal conditions such as tuberous sclerosis or Fragile X syndrome

Side-effects of some medicines taken during pregnancy

Diagnosis for Autism Disorder

No diagnostic test is done for Autism, nor can it be detected by any test. If your child is 2 years old, his activity is not like normal children, then it can be an indication of ASD, for this you should meet your Pediatrician as soon as possible.

Autism Treatment

Till now no specific treatment is available for autism, in this, with the help of innervational treatment, work is done on important skills like reading and writing to children of autism.
In children of autism, both their fine motor skills and gross motor skills are worked. Fine motor comes in those skills in which children have problems in gripping, such as holding a pencil or holding a spoon, working on the activity related to their hand. Is
Gross motor skill includes all those activities in which the child is taught to get up, sit and play.
More about autism

What is occupational therapy and its role in children?

What is occupational therapy and its role in children?

Occupational means to do any work, if any child or adult is unable to do his daily work, even if a child is mentally weak, he does not know how to mix and play with children of his age. 

In Occupational Therapy, work is done to enable the children to live better in the society and adopt social tolerance, the child is prepared emotionally and socially in every way.

Role of Occupational Therapy in Children

Children who have suffered a trauma at the time of birth, due to which they are unable to sit up or do their daily activities, such as children with cerebral palsy or those who have mentally retired children Occupation Therapy is very effective at this time. It has been done through Occupation Therapy that work is done on the motor skills of such children, this includes children with autism. does not develop from

What is the Importance of Occupational Therapy in Old Age People?

In old age, if people become a victim of an accident and any part of their body, for example, if someone’s person gets a hot accident, then he has to face a lot of trouble in holding the spoon and eating food many times. In such a situation, Occupational Therapy helps them in their day-to-day tasks, people who suffer from any neuro problem often see the problem of coordination, even such Occupational Therapy is very effective.

The goal of Occupational Therapy is to increase the capacity of a person or child to engage in any kind of activities necessary and make it convenient according to the society, whether it is any kind of change in the child regarding his own cleanliness or Work on every skill is done by occupational therapy regarding all the activities that take place in the school.

The word Occupation does not only mean a job, but it addresses any type of activity.

What should I do to reduce Creatinine level?

Creatinine is a waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body. Everyone has creatinine in their bloodstream.

When we eat food, there are four main substances in our food that is  Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat, Vitamins and minerals.

When we eat protein-rich food, after that protein goes into the body, its metabolism occurs in the liver, due to which urea and creatinine are formed. It travels through the blood to the kidney. The work of the kidney is to remove waste products from the blood. When urea and creatinine reach in the kidneys, they filter them through their filters and expel them through urine.

This way, the kidney removes waste products from the blood and allows proteins and minerals to remain in our body. When our kidneys start getting damaged, they are unable to filter waste products.

Normal blood creatinine levels

Men: 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL

Women: 0.5 to 1.1 mg/dL

Teenagers: 0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL

Children: 0.3 to 0.7 mg/dL

Normal urine creatinine levels:

Men: 107 to 139 mL/min; 1.8 to 2.3 mL/sec

Women: 87 to 107 mL/min; 1.5 to 1.8 mL/sec

Any person >40 years of age: Levels should drop by 6.5 mL/min for every additional 10 years of age

Causes of High Creatinine Level

If you have high creatinine levels in the body, it’s important to schedule a health checkup as soon as possible, since it may be a possible cause of kidney ailments.


High blood pressure

History of kidney disease

Autoimmune disorders

Bacterial infections

While creatinine levels can rise due to a lot of underlying factors, every individual must work to ensure that the body gets proper clean blood flow to function well. In some cases, medications and therapies may be advised to lower creatinine and improve vital functioning.

That being said, there are also many home remedies and dietary changes that can be given a try to treat underlying causes and lower creatinine levels naturally. We list out a few of them for you.

How can you Balance Creatinine Level In Blood?

1. Reduce protein intake

Protein is an important nutrient needed by the body for various needs.

However, excess protein can also increase creatinine levels in the body and go undigested.

In fact, certain studies have found out that certain protein-rich foods are more susceptible of increasing creatinine than others. For cutting down on foods like red meat, certain dairy sources can help.

Switching to plant-based proteins and more vegetables can be of help too.

2. Increase your fiber intake

Fiber is a crucial nutrient that aids digestion. It can also help balance out creatinine elimination in the body.

Many studies have shown that a significant increase in fiber intake led to lower creatinine levels in the body over a period of time.

Fiber can be found in a lot of foods, including fruits, vegetables, legumes, pulses and whole grains.

3. Stay Hydrated

There is yet another reason to drink adequate water.

Dehydration, or drinking less than required water in a day can raise your creatinine levels in the body and make elimination difficult.

For people with kidney diseases, fluid intake and retention can impose problems too.

Talking to a qualified nutritionist, incorporating more hydrating foods and drinks into your diet may make a difference.

Try and have at least 8-10 glasses of water a day.

4. Low Salt intake

Excessive salt intake is a major cause of high blood pressure, which in turn, can lead to kidney problems.

Processed foods are often also loaded with additives, sodium and harmful agents which can lead to renal issues.

Therefore, one of the best ways to naturally lower your creatinine levels is by taming down your salt consumption in a day.

Try and cut down your salt intake and make use of natural spices, herbs to flavor your food. Your salt intake shouldn’t exceed more than 2 tablespoons in a day.

5. Limit smoking

Tobacco consumption is also something that is linked to renal diseases and complications, including high creatinine levels.

Cigarette smoking can also reduce the likelihood of other health complications which can affect mortality. Therefore, quitting smoking can help you manage your health better.

6. Cut down on alcohol intake

Alcohol is not just bad for your liver but renal health too. Excess alcohol consumption has been found to damage the kidneys, create renal problems, increase blood pressure levels.
All of these factors can disturb creatinine levels in the body. Hence, cutting down on your alcohol consumption is a good measure to lead a healthy life.

Test For creatinine level

Creatinine levels can be measured by a simple blood test in which the doctor checks the serum creatinine. Sometimes creatinine levels are tested over a 24-hour period. You’ll be asked to collect all of your urine over that time frame and bring it in to your doctor. The lab will test the amount of creatinine in your urine, and then compare that to the amount of creatinine in your blood. This shows your doctor how much waste is being filtered out of your body—and how your kidneys are performing.

Nephrotic Syndrome Diet in Children, (Kidney Disease)

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder in which the filter holes of the kidney become enlarged and leakage too much protein into the urine. This can occur in kidney disease because of damages the nephrons (filtering units). Water retention occur in the body due to leaking of protein into the urine.

Nephrotic Syndrome

Person who has nephrotic syndrome, pass so much protein in urine, low levels of protein in your blood can cause edema (fluid retention) or swelling, usually in the  lower extremity and face most common on eyes.

High blood pressure is very common  in Nephrotic Patient, and higher than normal fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.

Nephrotic syndrome is a common disease all over the world

Overall incidence is reported to be 2040/million population

In USA & in Europe, the incidence is 1013/million children under 16 years of age.

In the Indian subcontinent the incidence is estimated as 90-100/million population

Around 1 in every 50,000 children are diagnosed with the condition each year.

Diet for Nephrotic Syndrome Children

A low-sodium, low fat, low cholesterol diet is also recommended with nephrotic syndrome. Too much salt can cause edema, and high blood pressure. High amounts of fat should be avoided as the cholesterol and triglyceride levels tend to be high in patients with nephrotic syndrome. To help manage this condition, it’s important to understand what is best to eat.

How to manage five main component in Nephrotic diet?

1- Carbohydrate Diet:- In Nephrotic Children recommended complex carbohydrate diet, because the nephrotic children are taking steroid treatment if the patient taken free carbohydrate diet heavy chances to gain weight more fast.

If your child is on steroids, his appetite is also very high and if you start giving a free carbohydrate diet, then his weight may increase. So avoid high sugar food like beverage, ice-cream, white sugar. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables

2- Fat:- Now Let’s come to fat because your diet is also become increase in it and some medicines also give in nephrotic syndrome that may increase patient cholesterol level. It is important to avoid these type of food that will increase the cholesterol when the leakage of protein into the urine doesn’t stop.

You should avoid saturated fat, avoid fried food, avoid desi ghee.

you can use unsaturated fat and oil like olive, canola, safflower, groundnut oil, Palm oil, Coconut oil, Soya bean Oil this can be use for nephrotic children. You cam use small amount of ghee not too much.

3- Protein- This is the most misunderstood. In nephrotic syndrome daily leakage of protein in urine around 5g to 15g. That indicate there is a lack of Protein in the blood, due to which there is swelling in the body. If patient take less amount of protein, the swelling will increase and the risk factor will also increase. Some time the problem can be very risky the patient has to take a proteins injection due to take less protein in his/her diet

Measurement of the Proteins 

If a patient is leaking 5grams of protein daily, then we have to suggest 5gram extra intake daily. Suppose if your child is 15kg recommended protein is 1.2g/per/kg (only for Children), your child leaking 5gram protein in urine per day, daily diet should be 23gram per day. 

Vitamin and Minerals:- The body is swollen and water retention is happening, so the less salt we take in it  the better, you can use pink salt, low sodium salt. You should eat your with low salt. You should avoid pickle, Ketchup. extra salt strictly avoided in nephrotic syndrome because the more salt you use in your food, the more it will swell. Most important aspect of diet in nephrotic syndrome is salt restriction.

In nephrotic appetite is going to be high so extra vitamins is not needed it sufficient in your daily diet. 

Calcium:-  In nephrotic, it is necessary to take a calcium rich diet because there are medicine in which weaken a bones. Your doctor may be prescribe a calcium medicine also with nephrotic medication. You should take a lot of vegetable and fruits, there is no restriction of phosphorus, no restriction in potassium also.

So overall diet in nephrotic syndrome is low salt normal diet with low fat just because of high cholesterol.

You should give your child some fruits and nuts before every meal because if your child is hungry, then he will eat unhealthy things which will be harmful for him, so you have to take more care of your child’s diet

Some food You can take in NS

Fruit Like (apples, blueberries, pears, pineapple, peaches, strawberries, mandarin orange, passion fruit),

Vegetables (green beans, lettuce, bean sprouts, green onion, cucumber, cabbage, green peppers, corn, cauliflower),

Low-sodium canned vegetables, potatoes, rice, low sodium bread, pasta, unsalted snacks (nuts, popcorn),

Low salt cottage cheese, low fat milk

Symptoms of Nephrotic syndrome.

1-Swelling – the low level of protein in the blood reduces the flow of water from body tissues back into the blood vessels, leading to swelling (edema). Swelling is usually first noticed around the eyes, then around the lower legs and the rest of the body.

2-Infections – antibodies are a specialized group of proteins in the blood that help to fight infection. When these are lost, children are much more likely to get infections.

3-Urine changes – occasionally, the high levels of protein being passed into the urine can cause it to become frothy. Some children with nephrotic syndrome may also pass less urine than usual during relapses.

4- Blood clots – important proteins that help prevent the blood clotting can be passed out in the urine of children with nephrotic syndrome. This can increase their risk of potentially serious blood clots. During a relapse, the blood also becomes more concentrated, which can lead to clotting.

These problems tend to be more common in adults with nephrotic syndrome.

Although nephrotic syndrome can affect people of any age, it’s usually first diagnosed in children aged between 2 and 5 years old. It affects more boys than girls.

Also follow my these diet chart

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Diabetes diet chart: Do’s and Don’ts in Diabetic Patient

Balance Diet. What should we eat According to ICMR?


UTI/Urinary Tract Infection, Most common in Females

Urinary tract infection (UTI)  is a common medical problems in children and Adults, affecting 3-10% female and 1-3% male. (UTI) is an infection in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra. Women are at greater risk of developing a UTI than are men. 

Bacteria of Urinary Tract Infection(UTI)

UTI are chiefly caused by E. coli the predominant periurethral flora, others include Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

Urinary tract Infection (UTI)

Causes of Urinary tract Infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infections typically occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra. Although the urinary system is designed to keep out such microscopic invaders, these defenses sometimes fail. When that happens, bacteria may take hold and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary tract.

The most common UTI occur mainly in women and affect the bladder and urethra.

UTI is usually caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli), a type of bacteria commonly found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, sometimes other bacteria are responsible.

Sexual intercourse may lead to cystitis, but you don’t have to be sexually active to develop it. All women are at risk of cystitis specifically, the short distance from the urethra to the anus and the urethral opening to the bladder.

UTI can occur when GI bacteria spread from the anus to the urethra. Also, because the female urethra is close to the vagina, sexually transmitted infections, such as herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia and mycoplasma, can cause urethritis.

Babies born with urinary tract abnormalities that don’t allow urine to leave the body normally or cause urine to back up in the urethra have an increased risk of UTI.

Kidney stones or an enlarged prostate can trap urine in the bladder and increase the risk of UTI.

Diabetes and other diseases that impair the immune system  the body’s defense against germs can increase the risk of UTI.

People who can’t able to pass urine their own and use a tube (catheter) to urinate have an high risk of UTI. This may include people who are hospitalized, people with neurological problems that make it difficult to control their ability to urinate and people who are paralyzed.

Urinary surgery or an exam of your urinary tract that involves medical instruments can both increase your risk of developing a urinary tract infection.

It also seen in lot of infants, babies sometimes leave with heavy diaper with fill of potty and urine for several hours, so bacteria can also effect that infants because if you are not cleaning your child after passing a potty and urine for several hours the bacteria of her/his potty will present, it can be reached into ureteral it causes a E Coli infection this is the most common infection.

Female Urethra

Female urethras are around 4 cm, which is significantly shorter than male urethras, which are around 18-20 cm, making it easier for germs to reach the bladder. Women’s urethras are also located much closer to the anus compared to men’s, making it easy for bacteria from the anus to migrate to the urethra.

Male Urethra

In the human male, the urethra is on average 18 to 20 centimetres long and opens at the end of the external urethral meatus. It is not close to Anus so very unlikely seen UTI in male. 


Symptoms of UTI

High Fever

Problem in Urination

Pain In Lower Abdomen

Itching and pain during urination

A strong, persistent urge to urinate

A burning sensation when urinating

Passing frequent, small amounts of urine

Urine that appears cloudy

Urine that appears red, bright pink or cola-colored — a sign of blood in the urine

Strong-smelling urine

Pelvic pain, in women — especially in the center of the pelvis and around the area of the pubic bone.

It is difficult to distinguish between infection localized to the bladder (cystitis) and upper tracts (pyelonephritis). The distinction is not necessary since most UTI in children below 5 years of age involve the upper tracts.

Patients with high fever, systemic toxicity, persistent vomiting, dehydration, renal angle tenderness or raised creatinine are considered as complicated.

Patients with low grade fever, dysuria, frequency and urgency and absence of symptoms of complicated UTI are considered to have simple UTI.

Neonates show features of sepsis with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, poor weight gain and lethargy. The older infant has unexplained fever, frequent micturition and occasionally convulsions. Gross hematuria(Blood in Urine) is uncommon. The presence of crying or straining during voiding, dribbling, weak or abnormal urine stream and palpable bladder suggest urinary obstruction.

Types of urinary tract infection

Part of urinary tract affected Signs and symptoms

(acute pyelonephritis)

Back pain or side (flank) pain

High fever

Shaking and chills



Bladder (cystitis)

Most Common in Women

Pelvic pressure

Lower abdomen discomfort

Frequent, painful urination

Blood in urine

Urethra (urethritis)

Most Common in Women

Burning with urination


Diagnosis and Test For UTI

Tests and procedures used to diagnose urinary tract infections include:

The diagnosis of UTI is based on growth of significant number of organisms of a single species in the urine. Significant bacteriuria is a colony count of >105/mL of a single species in a clean catch sample. Urine may be obtained by suprapubic bladder aspiration or urethral catheterization in children below 2 years.

Any colonies on suprapubic aspiration and >50,000/mL on urethral catheterization are considered significant. 

If you are having frequent infections that your doctor thinks may be caused by an abnormality in your urinary tract, you may have an ultrasound, a computerized tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Your doctor may also use a contrast dye to highlight structures in your urinary tract.

If you have recurrent UTI, your doctor may perform a cystoscopy, using a long, thin tube with a lens (cystoscope) to see inside your urethra and bladder. The cystoscope is inserted in your urethra and passed through to your bladder.

How to Collect Urine Sample?

Patients with orders for a urine culture and sensitivity are given the proper mid-stream urine collection kit and the appropriate instruction sheet

Give the patient a sterile urine collection kit or urine container. The kits or container are available in the  lab.

There are different instructions for males and females. Verify that then patient understands the instructions.

Male urine culture collection instructions:  

1. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water, rinse and dry.

2. Open the container. Retract foreskin if present. Cleanse the urinary opening of the penis starting at the center and work outward.

3. Remove lid carefully from the collection container, DO NOT TOUCH the inside of the container or rim. Gently grasp the container.

4. Begin to void urine, letting the first 20-25 ml pass into the toilet. Position the cup in the stream of urine until the container is about half to two-thirds full. Finish voiding into the toilet.

5. After obtaining the urine specimen, screw the lid on tightly again being careful to avoid touching inside the container or lid.

6. Bring the specimen to the lab within 1 hour or collection or store refrigerated for up to 24 hours.

Female urine culture collection instructions: 

1. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water, rinse and dry.

2. While seated on the toilet spread labia major (outer folds). Wipe one side of the labia minora (inner fold) using a single downward stroke.

3. Remove lid carefully from the collection container, DO NOT TOUCH the inside of the container or rim. Gently grasp the container.

4. Begin to void urine, letting the first 20-25 ml pass into the toilet. Position the cup in the stream of urine until the container is about one-half to two-thirds full. Finish voiding into the toilet.

5. After obtaining the urine specimen, screw the lid on tightly again being careful to avoid touching inside the container or lid.

6. Bring the specimen to the lab within 1 hour of collection  or store refrigerated for up to 24 hours.

Treatment of UTI

Once UTI is suspected, a urine specimen is sent for culture and treatment started.

Infants below 3 months of age and children with complicated UTI should initially receive parenteral antibiotics.

The initial choice of antibiotics is empiric and is modified once culture result is available. While a third generation cephalosporin is preferred, therapy with a single daily dose of aminoglycoside is also safe and effective.

Once oral intake improves and symptoms abate, usually after 48-72 hours, therapy is switched to an oral antibiotic.

The duration of treatment for complicated UTI is 10-14 days. Older infants and patients with simple UTI should receive treatment with an oral antibiotic for 7-10 days. Adolescents with cystitis may receive shorter duration of antibiotics, lasting 72 hours. Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria do not require treatment.

All children with UTI are encouraged to take enough fluids and empty the bladder frequently. Routine alkalization of the urine is not necessary. With appropriate therapy, fever and systemic toxicity reduce and urine culture is sterile within 24-36 hours. Failure to obtain such results suggests either lack of bacterial sensitivity to the medication or presence of an underlying anomaly of the urinary tract. 

Some common Antibiotic Use in UTI



Amoxicillin/Clavulanate (Augmentin)







Your doctor will choose your antibiotic based on your history, type of UTI, local resistance patterns, and cost considerations. First-line options are usually selected from nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and certain cephalosporins, for example cefpodoxime, cefdinir, or cefaclor may be appropriate options when first-line options cannot be used.

Length of treatment for cystitis can range from a single, one-time dose, to a course of medication over 5 to 7 days. Kidney infections may require injectable treatment, hospitalization, as well as a longer course of antibiotic, depending upon severity of the infection.

Sometimes a UTI can be self-limiting in women, meaning that the body can fight the infection without antibiotics, however, most uncomplicated UTI cases can be treated quickly with a short course of oral antibiotics.

You must check your Routine Microscopic and culture sensitivity test, Culture sensitivity test is the most importance for know about bacterial growth and which bacteria cause UTI. If your doctor start a medicine on the based of routine microscopic urine test. They don’t have idea what bacteria grow in urethra and which antibiotic will effect they start antibiotic blindly . If you check culture sensitivity this test show the clear report which antibiotic effective in your body.

Never use an antibiotic that has been prescribed for someone else. Kindly advice your doctor this article only for educational purpose

Some other way to reduce UTI Infection

Urinary tract infections can be painful, but you can take steps to ease your discomfort until antibiotics treat the infection. Follow these tips:

Drink plenty of water. Water helps to dilute your urine and flush out bacteria.

Avoid drinks that may irritate your bladder. Avoid coffee, alcohol, and soft drinks containing citrus juices or caffeine until your infection has cleared. They can irritate your bladder and tend to aggravate your frequent or urgent need to urinate.

Use a heating pad. Apply a warm, but not hot, heating pad to your abdomen to minimize bladder pressure or discomfort.

Women can avoid bacteria called E-Coli taking care of few thing.

Maintain your personal hygiene 

Some women avoid bathing in menstruation time but in menstruation time hygiene is most important.

Most important thing to avoid E-Coli bacteria is to know whether the way of cleaning your potty is right. Does everyone know how we should clean the potty? So let’s we know.

I am taking about women pattern of potty cleaning when they are an adult or child. Most of women of child mother clean their potty from back to front as i mentioned above the anatomy of female urethra.

The urethra is very close to Anus. When women clean the potty from back to front, the bacteria that are in our intestine can enter our urethra through the vaginal route. It happen just because of women anus and vaginal distance is very short. so always wipe you potty from front to back it help to prevent E-Coli bacteria. It is the most common bacteria in females.

Also read my this blog this is commonest problem in vegetarian people

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Diabetes diet chart: Do’s and Don’ts in Diabetic Patient

Diabetic Diet and Food Tips – Healthy eating & healthy snacking.

Diet in Diabetes Mellitus

Regular and consistent diet is most important in diabetes, with no feasts and fasts. Split your diet into 3-4 meals. Avoid sugar and sugar containing foods, and fried foods. Avoid fats (butter, oil, malai) and fat rich foods (puri, paratha, chat, namkeen etc.). Drink cow’s milk or toned milk, not buffalo milk.

Food for Diabetes Patients:

List of foods that Don’t Impact Blood Sugar-

In Moderate Amount

 Almond – 4 pcs. Per day

Curd – 200gm. per day


Egg white

Free Foods

Salads- Cucumber, Tomato, Radish, Boiled green leafy vegetables

Vegetable soups (freshly prepared)

Butter milk

Tea/Coffee (No sugar, Less/No milk)

Lime water

Sample Diabetic diet chart

Meal/Time Menu Quantity
Early morning Nuts:


Breakfast Flakes (Oat/Whole wheat) Sandwich(multigrain bread)/Stuffed roti/Besan cheela stuffed +
Vegetable or Egg
1 Bowl

2 slices/2/2

1 Bowl

1-2 Bowl

Mid morning Fruits:Papaya
Buttermilk/Coconut water
1 Bowl

1 Glass

Lunch Chapatis/Brown rice
+ Salad
2/1 Bowl
1 Bowl
1 Bowl
1 Bowl
Evening Fruit
Roasted chana and murmura chat/
Vegetable Idli/
1 Bowl
Dinner Vegetable soup
Dal/ Chicken
Green Salad
1 Bowl
1 Bowl
1 Bow
1 Bowl
Bed Time Milk 1 Glass

This meal plan provides around 1800-2000 calories for a day.

Do’s in diabetic patients

Plan your diet with regular meal timings.

Include complex carbs in every meal such as whole wheat, jowar, brown rice, oats etc.

Eat fiber rich foods.

Low fat milk/milk products like cow’s milk, paneer, egg whites, lean chicken and fish.

For vegetarians whole pulses (dals) can provide protein and good amount of fiber.

As a diabetic you are free to eat most vegetables you like. (Restricted use of certain vegetable is advisable like – Potato etc.)

Depending on your blood sugar, you can have one to two portion fruits daily. No fruit is off limits but if you are especially fond of mangoes or bananas, preferably eat them with a meal.

It is imperative that you reduce your butter, ghee or oil intake.

Use vinegar, achaar, chutney and other food items for taste.

Sugar Free items including sweets, dark chocolate can be enjoyed.

Don’ts in diabetic patients.

Frequent snacking and feasting.

Erratic meal timings.

Drink sweetened drinks including fruit juices.

Make starchy carbohydrates your main course.

Skip meals/fasting. Being a diabetic, you are prone to periods of low blood sugar during fasts; this can lead to complications like fainting spells, seizures.

Eat saturated or Trans fat (canned foods, bakery products).

Consume sugars or sweets.

Over indulge in alcohol.

Processed food like cakes, biscuits and ready-to-eat foods, as they are loaded with fats.

Lead a sedentary lifestyle with no exercise

Use these “meal plan” ideas as part of healthy eating:

Enjoy vegetables, most fruits and low-fat milk products with your meals. These are carbohydrate-rich foods but in general have low glycemic index.

Plan your meals with foods in the low and medium Glycemic Index starch choices. Try foods such as barley or lentils.